Scientific Inquiry and Review

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Volume 2, Issue 4, 2018 

Publication of Volume 2, Issue 4, 2018 Edition is in-process. The publication process will complete soon. Full text will be available after the completion of publication process. 

  • Trace Elements in Medicinal Seeds

Mohammad Rafiq Khan*1, Abdul Ghaffar2, and Hafiz Muhammad Umer Aslam3 

1*Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Lahore School of Economics, Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of Chemistry, Government College of Science, Lahore, Pakistan

3Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan


Moisture, ash and trace elements such as iron, cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper present in medicinal seeds, popularly used and available in Pakistan, were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The highest moisture content was found in Cucumisativis  (Kheira), while, the lowest was in Parsley (Ajwain). The highest content resulted from complete burning of Planpagomajorlill (Burtung). . Carumcarvi (Caraway) was found to contain the highest amounts of trace elements determined, while Cichorimintybus (Wild Cichory) contained their lowest amount. Copper was found to be highest in Trigonellafoenumgracum (Medicago), while it was lowest in Planpagomajorlill (Burtung) and Cucumisativis  (Kheira). Zinc, manganese and cobalt were found highest in Carumcarvi (Caraway), Cichorimintybus (Wild Cichory) and Cumin (SufaidZeera) and lowest in Phyllanothusmaderoslimm (Kanocha), Planpagomajorlill (Burtung) and Cichorimintybus(Wild Cichory).

  •  Numerical Solutions For Third Order Ordinary Differential Equation By Differential Transform Method & Elzaki Transform Method

    Muhammad Saqlain, Wajeeha Irshad, Usman Bashir, Ghulam Murtaza

    Department of Mathematics, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan. 


     Differential Transformation provides semi analytical arithmetical solution. These approaches are proficient of reducing the calculation and works capably. In this paper we use Elzaki Transform Method (ETM) and Differential Transformation Method (DTM) to get a Numerical result of Third order ordinary differential equation. We relate the results to see which Transformation converges quicker to true solution. we also offered the numerical results with errors to show the efficiency of the methods.

    Keywords: Elzaki Transform Method (ETM), Differential Transform Method (DTM), exact solutions.

  • On Leap Gourava Indices of Some Wheel Related Graphs

    Fazal Dayan*, Muhammad Javaid, Muhammad Aziz ur Rehman

    Department of Mathematics, School of Science,

    University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan


    Zagreb indices have been introduced more than forty years ago while Naji et al. introduced the leap Zagreb indices of a graph in 2017 which are some new distance-degree-based topological indices conceived depending on the second degrees of vertices. The Gourava indices were introduced by Kulli. In this paper we defined the first and second leap Gourava indices and computed leap Gourava indices for some wheel related graphs.

    Keywords: Gourava indices, leap Gourava indices, wheel graph, gear graph, helm graph, flower graph, sunflower graph

  • Fruit Pest Management in Pakistan: A Review

    *1Sadia Sidra Aziz and 1Mubashar Hussain

    1Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. (50700)


    The purpose of this article is to review several techniques being employed to control various pest species of fruit crops in Pakistan. Fruit pests cause considerable damage to Pakistan’s economy as fruit crops contribute approximately 13% in the GDP of Pakistan. Fruit exports of Pakistan reach up to 2366.5 billion rupees. Unfortunately, major portion of these crops is lost annually because of pre-harvest or post-harvest pest infestations. Fruit flies, citrus whiteflies, cloudywinged whitefly, citrus blackfly, citrus leafminer, Nile whitefly, Pepper whitefly, common walkingsticks, gall midge, mealy bugs, moths and aphids are most important pest species that infest various fruit crops e.g. mangoes, citrus, grapes, guava, peach, apple, date palm, banana, etc. in Pakistan. Fruit flies pose biggest threat as they infest more than 50 fruit crops. Pest control strategies practiced in the country include physical methods e.g. traps, baits, bands, etc.; botanical control, i.e. using plant extracts to which pests are attracted and then killed or plant-based pest repellents; chemical control involving several types of insecticides, pesticides etc. Recently integrated pest management techniques are emerging as successful and eco-friendly method involving all the available measures to cope with a wide range of pest species e.g. plant-based insecticides, traps and baits, mechanical and cultural methods, male annihilation technique (MAT), sterile insect techniques (SIT) etc.; but these techniques have certain limitations too. Therefore, the need arises to continuously work for the betterment of existing pest management techniques and proposing new innovative methods to minimize pest infestations and yield losses in fruit crops.

    Keywords: fruit crops, pests, integrated pest management, insecticides, MAT, SIT

  • Production of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Different Mix Design Ratios

    Ali Ajwad

    Department of Civil Engineering,

    University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan


    Concrete is a brittle material and in order to make it ductile steel is used. In the current project, steel fibers were used as an additive material by weight of sand. Tests were performed on three different design mix ratios, i.e., M1, M2 and M3 at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Numerous physical tests were performed on the materials used. The slump test was performed in fresh state and compressive test was performed in the hardened state of concrete mixes. From the result of the slump test, it was concluded that workability decreased due to two reasons. The first reason was an increase in the percentage of steel fiber and the second reason was the difference in mix design ratio. The compressive strength increased at 5% in M1 and M2. On the contrary, the strength decreased in M3 at 5%. In all M3 mixes, the strength significantly decreased. Conclusively, the strength increases due to the crack bridging effect and it decreases due to weak bonding

    Keywords: steel fiber reinforced concrete, compressive strength test, workability, mix design ratio, additive


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