Scientific Inquiry and Review

Current Issue Volume 3, Issue 1, 2019 

Abnormal Electrocardiographic Effects of Tricyclic Antidepressants

Huraira Hanif, Razia Iqbal, Sadia Sidra Aziz, Syeda Iman Fatima and Izzah Butt


The paper aims to review ECG and effects of Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) on ECG. ECG is the recording of the electrical conductivity of heart made by placing electrodes on the body. Antidepressants have lethal neurological and cardiovascular effects in depressive persons. TCA can cause abnormalities in the ECG pattern. It affects the conduction rate and slows the heart beat by blocking sodium channels that cause the elongation of QST complex which leads to abnormalities. QT is prolonged if > 440ms in men and > 460ms in women. Due to TCA, QT > 500ms that causes abnormalities. Brugada syndrome is also obtained by exposure to TCA. Doxepin slows down the conduction rate in patients with major depressive disorders. TCA causes symptomatic A-V blockage in patients with preexisting cardiovascular diseases. Desipramine and Immipramine cause sudden death in 6-9 years old children due to an overdose of these drugs. Antidepressants such as Agomelatine, Paroxetine, Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors cause cardiac deformities in patients as well as pregnant women. Abnormality in ECG tells us about problems in the rhythmicity of heart. ECG can be used for the assessment of drugs that have electrophysiological effects.

Assessing the Durability of Concrete with the Addition of Low Quality Fly Ash

Ali Ajwad, M. N. A. Raja, U. Sajjad, M. U. Rashid and M. M. I. Shafiq


The life span of a structure is basically determined by its durability. Over the course of time, concrete carbonation and corrosion of steel reinforcement lead to weakness in concrete’s structural elements and hence reduce its useful life. The addition of fibers in concrete can act as barrier and delays the activation of these processes. In this study, low quality fly ash was added to concrete to check its effect on the durability of concrete. It was found that the addition of low quality fly ash with an activator does have a positive impact on carbonation and reinforcement of corrosion resistance.

Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: A Review

Hareem Sajjad and Neelam Arif


The main purpose of this review paper is to study different biological control methods for controlling mosquito vectors. Mosquitoes act as vector for many harmful diseases including malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filarial, encephalitis, chikungunya, dengue and poly arthritis. The use of chemical insecticides for controlling mosquitoes is limited because they develop resistance against these insecticides. So, efforts have been made to control the mosquito vectors by eco-friendly techniques. At present, biocontrol agents are used to control the mosquito species with the aim to reduce the impact and cost of insecticide based strategies. These biocontrol agents involve the use of natural enemies including bacteria, fungi, larvivorous fish, protozoans and nematodes. These agents target mosquitoes at different stages of their life cycle. In this paper, we focus on several bio-controlling methods used to reduce the population of mosquito vectors.

Comparison of Computation Period for Some Newtonian Fluid Flow Problems by Elzaki, Sumudu and Laplace Transform

Muhammad Saqlain, Sadia Fareed, Naveed Jafar, Asma Riffat, Ghulam Murtaza


Newtonian Fluid Flow Problems (NFFPs) of Stokes’ first theorem for suddenly started and suddenly stopped plate are solved by Elzaki Transform Method and the results are identical to those of Laplace Transform and Sumudu Transform. It shows that the said method is very effective due to smaller computation period. The results are verified by graphing the outcome of all the transforms and by calculating their computation period, so that NFFP can be easily solved by Elzaki Transform Method to avoid lengthy calculations.

DDoS Hazard and Precautionary Measures in Software Define Network

Tanzeel Sultan Rana 


Software Defined Network is an emerging technology which is flourishing due to its diversity and by virtue of the fact that there are decoupled planes in this architecture which have some benefits as well as drawbacks, such as the execution of cyber attacks are easy at northbound and southbound interfaces and DDoS attack can easily be manipulated in this architecture. It has been identified that DDoS attack can be countered at northbound API so that appropriate decision about illegitimate traffic can be taken. Java has provided us with a very reliable support for three decades. Hence, all controls are governed by programming interfaces in this architecture with the help of this feature and according to the entropy of information which allows us to track the traffic and compare it with the threshold to identify the malware in the network. Floodlight controller is used in this paper to accommodate the illegitimate traffic. This paper allows the programmers to program such applications in Python or Java based on the basic mechanism of entropy which uses a threshold value from which DDoS attack can be countered, as we are well aware that a large number of systems are involved in producing illegitimate traffic on a network which creates distraction for the legitimate traffic.

The Effect of Magnetic Field on Electro-deposition of Nickel and Cobalt Nanowires

Sidra Khalid, Zaheer Hussain Shah


Anodized Aluminum Oxide (AAO) nano-porous template is fabricated and nickel (Ni) nanowires are synthesized in the nano pores of AAO template by AC electro-deposition technique in the presence and absence of magnetic field applying only in a direction parallel to nanowire axis. Cobalt (Co) nanowires are fabricated by applying magnetic field externally both in perpendicular and parallel directions to the axis of nanowires. Magnetic field can bring change in the preferential grain growth of Ni and Co nanowires. Magnetic field applied parallel to nanowire axis increases deposition rate and current density due to magneto hydrodynamic effect, while magnetic field applied in perpendicular to the surface of electrode does not bring significant change in the chemical reaction. Magnetic properties are also affected by applying external magnetic field during deposition. These changes associated with grain growth in the preferred direction of Ni and Co nanowires are discussed in this article.


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